In England and Wales, the types of sentence that may be imposed for a particular offence are specified by statute.
There are four main types of sentence: discharges, fines, community sentences and custodial (or prison) sentences.
For these reasons, the statutory maximum penalty for the offense is not necessarily an accurate indicator of the potential sentence for a specific defendant.
Witness intimidation is when an attempt is made to threaten or persuade a witness not to give evidence to the police or courts, or to give evidence in a way that is favourable to the defendant.
A violation of division (A) of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree.
(B) No person, knowingly and by force or by unlawful threat of harm to any person or property or by unlawful threat to commit any offense or calumny against any person, shall attempt to influence, intimidate, or hinder any of the following persons: (1) The victim of a crime or delinquent act in the filing or prosecution of criminal charges or a delinquent child action or proceeding; (2) A witness to a criminal or delinquent act by reason of the person being a witness to that act; (3) An attorney by reason of the attorney's involvement in any criminal or delinquent child action or proceeding .
(C) Division (A) of this section does not apply to any person who is attempting to resolve a dispute pertaining to the alleged commission of a criminal offense, either prior to or subsequent to the filing of a complaint, indictment, or information, by participating in the arbitration, mediation, compromise, settlement, or conciliation of that dispute pursuant to an authorization for arbitration, mediation, compromise, settlement, or conciliation of a dispute of that nature that is conferred by any of the following: (1) A section of the Revised Code; (2) The Rules of Criminal Procedure, the Rules of Superintendence for Municipal Courts and County Courts, the Rules of Superintendence for Courts of Common Pleas, or another rule adopted by the supreme court in accordance with section 5 of Article IV, Ohio Constitution; (3) A local rule of court, including, but not limited to, a local rule of court that relates to alternative dispute resolution or other case management programs and that authorizes the referral of disputes pertaining to the alleged commission of certain types of criminal offenses to appropriate and available arbitration, mediation, compromise, settlement, or other conciliation programs; (4) The order of a judge of a municipal court, county court, or court of common pleas.
There may be a variety of reasons for this including bringing shame on the victim's family.
In addition, there may be norms of behaviour within a culture for dealing with criminal matters that do not involve the formal agencies of the criminal justice system.